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TO J. C. LETTSOM, ESQ. M. D.

FELLOW OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY.

THE PATRON OF THE LIBERAL SCIENCES,

AND OF NATURAL HISTORY.

IN GRATITUDE AND RESPECT FOR THE NUMEROUS PROOFS OF UNLIMITED KINDNESS AND REGARD:

AND IN REVERENCE OF THOSE EMINENT TALENTS

WHICH HAVE ALWAYS BEEN EXERTED FOR THE GENERAL HAPPINESS OF MANKIND, THIS SMALL TESTIMONY OF REGARD,

Is HUMBLY DEDICATED BY HiS MOST OBEDIENT FRIEND,

AND OBLIGED HUMBLE SERVANT,

GEORGE PERRY.

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J. Strattord. Holborn, Jan. 1:

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Published

AOVDUVLOG Y.

THE TIGER.

Felis Tigris, Lin. Le Tigre, Buffon,

AMoncst the various animals of prey which infest the sultry regions of Asia, there are few which do not yield to the Tiger in ferocity and strength. Driven from the more civilized haunts of Man, and separated from the society of domestic animals, he ranges through the silent and trackless forest, indulging his natural thirst for blood, dealing horror and devastation through the animal kingdom. In the hotter regions of the Globe where the smaller animals abound, and the Niger or the Ganges roll their tributary streams to the Sea, the Tiger reigns uncontrouled, and spreads his ravages amongst the numerous herds of Antelopesand Deer, where they resort to the springs or rivers for refreshment. If we could for a moment forget the power of his fangs, or the unrelenting fierceness of his nature, we might contemplate with pleasure, the beauty of his skin, and the elegant contrast every where 4

ZOOLOGY.

i tang aS ETT SS a NR SSOPSNPREAGIONTNL MOB et OA. *

displayed in his form and contour. But the sense of his native cruelty, and irreclaimable nature, fill the mind with a secret and thrilling sense of detestation and horror, while astonishment usurps the place of pleasure.

The Royal Tiger of Indostan, and which is supposed to be of the largest race of these animals at present known, measures fourteen feet from its head to the end of its tail; his body is muscular and round, his feet large and projecting, armed with prehensile claws, each of them enclosed in a hollow horny sheath, like those of the Cat- tribe, His legs are short and not well calculated for swiftness, but rather for bounding or leaping upon his prey, for which he generally lies in wait, making a spring of twenty or thirty feet at a time upon the object he intends to seize. His tail is long and beautifully striped, in a similar manner with his back, having bands of dark brown placed across: and in this respect he differs mate- rially from the Leopard and Panther, which are remarkable rather by their round spots scattered irregularly over their bodies.

It would be an astonishing circumstance to the human mind that the merciful Author of Nature should have created such animals only for the purposes of devastation, if we were not at the same time convinced how necessary it is, that the smaller race of animals should be reduced and kept under, and in this point the balance of nature is as admirably preserved, the fiercer and more powerful animals producing only a few young ones at atime, The Tiger notwithstanding his strength, has the peculiar cow- ardice never to attack his enemy in front, and unless urgently pressed by famine, it is probable he would not fail always to fly from man; but if assaulted, his rage gets the better of his fear, and he becomes resolute even to death, The Lion, Buffalo and Rhinoceros are his natural

DSi

4

ZOOLOGY.

and formidable enemies, and with the Buffalo he is fre- quently enclosed by the Indian Chiefs in a stage-combat for the purposes of amusement, and in which case he generally becomes the victim.

Upon the whole there is reason to believe that the larger animals of prey, as the Lion, Tyger, and others, are much less numerous than formerly, as Europe is not able at present to exhibit any (except indeed ia a captive state) although they formerly abounded there.

We subjoin the following description of ‘the fight between the Buffalo and Tiger, as described by Captain Williamson in his Indian Sports. ‘A Pallisado is made of bamboo, thirty yards in diameter, and strongly fenced all round, from the’iop of. which the spectators can behold the combat. As security is the soul of amusement, every precaution is taken to enclose the Area in ‘such a manner as to obviate all reasonable fear. Where a Tiger is one of the Dramatis Persone, toomuch care cannot be used, as there have been instances of their making their escape, and putting all the spectators to the rout. The walls of the Area are raised twenty feet high, and the populace are placed in an elevated gallery so as to command a view of the whole.

As soon as the Tiger has entered the Area, the gates are closed, and a short time is allowed him to look around and examine his new situation. At first he seems to creep in a cowardly manner close to the Pallisades, wishfully looking at the top, and grinding his teeth at the people who surround the Area. The Buffalo is then introduced, and nothing can surpass the animation displayed at this moment, the Buffalo’s eyes sparkle with fury as he views his sculking enemy; he rushes forward with his head down and horns direct, at the Tiger’s body, which however

ZOOLOGY.

serves rather to bruise him, than to tear his skin, which is smooth and pliant. The Tiger starts on one side and endeayours to plant himself upon the Buffalo’s back by leaping over his head and neck, and in this he is often unsuc- cessful, and passing over him, changes his place and falling down, becomes submitted to the fury of his horns. The Buffalo however carries on a war of extermination, his rage being excited by his wounds, and the issue terminates uncertainly, but generally in the death of the Tiger, who becomes defeated through the greatness of the fatigue, and length of the combat. The violence of the Buffalo con- tinues for some time after the fight; it is prudent therefore to leave him to cool, and to approach him with water- and wet grass, of which he partakes with avidity. The road is afterwards cleared from passengers to prevent all accidents which might otherwise occur.”

The present specimen was drawn from the beautiful Tiger in the Menagerie of Mr. Prpcock.

CONCHOL OGY. Pll

C:Lerry ded.

Publishd ts Me” Stratord, L272, Holborn Hill.

CONCHOLOGY.

Tue variety and beautiful colours which are discover- able in the testaceous Family of Shells, have always ren-. dered them an interesting subject to the Naturalist and the Man of Taste.

~ In describing the four Shells contained in the annexed Plate, we shall endeavour previously to explain the different Characters of each Genus, that the Reader may afterwards more easily recognize each peculiar Distinction appropriate thereto. '

Shells have always been classed according to certain’ Similarities of Structure, observable in their outward form, and not from the qualities of the Animals contained in them, which are, generally speaking, quite unknown, except from Analogy to those which in the living state, are more easily within our reach, \

In each Species, we shall elucidate the Genus to which it belongs, by its most striking peculiarities.

B

CONCHOLOGY.

‘1. Genus, VOLUTELLA.

Character.—Shell univalve, spiral, the central pillar fluted with four flutes; the body and external cheek invested with tubercles irregularly placed.

Species.—Volutella divergens; Shell conical, angulated ; of a bright yellow colour; the surface irregularly spinous all over; mouth oblong and labiated, of a rich pink colour.

This Species is very rare, is a Native of the Indian Ocean: and is delineated from an Original Shellin the Col- lection of Mr. Greennart, of London. ‘The Genus is not very numerous, containing only about fifteen known Species.

2. Genus, SEPTA.

Character.—Shell univalve, spiral, having membranceous septa or divisions, placed upon the body and spire opposite and alternate; these are of a different colour to the rest of the Shell, and slightly tuber- culated.

Species.—Septa scarlatina ; Shell small, one inch and a half

| Jong; striped with scarlet bands, upon a. yellow: ground; the mouth white, verging to a brown, colour. ~

This beautiful little Shell was formerly, placed erro-, neously with the Genus Buccinum: it is a Native of “Amboyna, in the East Indies, and: varies from. itself some- times in having the colours very pale: It has been called; by the Germans the Liveryhorn. From a Shell in the Collection of the late Mr. Wixtxson. .

CONCHOLOGY. ee

3. Genus, ROSTELLARIA.

Character.—Shell univalve, spiral, having the outer cheek expanded (and united at the top of the mouth) to the spire; the beak straight and plain, ending in

4 a point,

Species. —Rostellaria rubicunda; Shell ovated and slightly tuberculated ; the mouth brown and striped; the spire and body of a dark red colour.

Like the former Shell it is a Native of Amboyna; and is from the curious and interesting Museum of Lord VarenTia.

4. Genus, TROCHUS.

Character.—Shell pyramidically shaped, spiral; having the mouth placed underneath, leaning sideways, and of a quadrangular form; the spire inclined to ‘the base. :

Species. —Trochus Apiaria; Shell white, striped with green transversely and irregularly; the sides and base slightly rounded and tuberculated.

This curious Shell isa Non-descript, and lately im- ported from Botany Bay, a country which has afforded an’ ample field of new subjects for the Conchologist. Kroma Specimen in the Museum of Dr. Lerrsou.

CONCHOLOGY.

a,

REMARKS.

The general divisions of ‘Testacea or Shell Animals, may be classed under the following Orders: Spirales, or Shells which have a twisted spire: Acuminatzx, or pointed . Shells, as the Patella, &c.: Bivalvw, or double Shells, as the Cockle, &c.: and lastly, Muitiloculares, or Shells having bony compartments, as the Orthoceras, Nautilus, © &c. ‘Those which were denominated by Linnzus,*Multi- alye, are not found upon Analysis to consist of similar component. materials, and. therefore ought properly to be separated ; such are the Sabella, Chitons, &c. These latter are rather to be considered as Animals invested with a horney or membranaceous Covering, rather than Testaceous or Shell Fish ; to which may be added, a very considerable difference in their internal Organization.

Philosophers have been much perplexed to account for the Manner of the growth of Shell-fish ; and notwith- standing that matter has received a very copious Investiga- tion, it is still. involved in considerable doubt. It was once believed that the animal had the power of adding an exter- nal Coat or Flap to the side of the Mouth, and which was repeated at certain intervals, enlarging the circle and size of the shell as the Animal increased in magnitude. Other writers haye supposed that the Animal had the power of forming a new Coyering for itself, and totally deserting the former slicll when it became too small. It seems more pro- bable that the Shell has an internal Power of Growth or Expansion, which exists from its beginning or birth, and adapts. itself by a general Expansion to the Size of the Animal. Certain it is, that when the Animal is arrived to its utmost size, it has the power of spreading over. the whole Surface of its Mouth a substance of the smoothest Enamel, which serves at the samie time to thicken and en- large the Lip; particularly the Strombus and Cowry.

CONCHOLOGY.

The Analogy which exists in the Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms is in many instances very striking and obvious. Amongst the Plants lately added by the recent Discoveries in the Southern Ocean, several have occurred which are parasitical, or living upon other Trees; of which we have a familiar instance in the Misletoe. The same circumstance occurs in the History of Shells, as several of the Lepas and Patella obviously shew, but the most singular Shell of this kind is the Proscenula, of. which several have been lately discovered by Mr. Strucnsury, in the Strombus and other large Shells, firmly adhering to the inside of the Mouth. This curious Genus which is hitherto undescribed, is flat and dish-shaped, in its general Form resembling the Patella, but differs from it in having its Apex or pointed summit placed at one end, and also below, a Proscenium, Plaiform or small Stage, projecting in a-circular form, from under the Apex. Some of these are so small as to require the Microscope to investigate them fully; and indeed it is not at all improbable, but that the Number of those Shells which are concealed from our View by their smallness, is greater by far than those which are so obvious and fill our cabinets. Several Genera exist amongst the more mi- nute kinds which are astonishing for the Singularity of their Forms, and the Beauty of their Colours. In this hitherto unfrequented Path we have only the Labours of two emi- nent Authors to guide our Steps; we allude to Fichtel and Soldanus, who have each of them scientifically endeavoured. to sketch an imperfect outline for the arrangement of future

writers. In the laborious descriptions of Mr. Boys, of /

Sandwich, who endeavoured to form a general Account of some of the minute English Shells, the plates which accompany the Work are not either sufficiently expressive

or beautiful. An hiatus therefore is left in this Part of ©

Natural History, which by an accurate delineation of the objects may prove highly useful and entertaining. The Fossil Shells, which are found enclosed in the substance of

\

CONCHOLOGY.

Rr

our most solid Mountains (a lasting evidence of the general

Deluge) hold out to the Naturalist a pleasing and inter-

esting Field for Enquiry. Their Forms are so different to

those found recent; their beautiful State of Preservation, the

curious circumstance of their Enclosure in Beds of Rock or. Clay, lay a claim to farther Enquiry and Investigation.

It is our intention to profit by these Remarks, and to bring forward from time to time the most singular and rare Species which may offer themselves to our observation. |

The greatest number or portion of Shells at present known revolve spirally from the left to the right ; but the Genera Helix, Melania, and Bulimus, are a remarkable exception to this rule, having a great many species which are reversed, still however even in this respect, varying sometimes to the right and sometimes to the left. ‘The Diogenes Crab frequently for the purpose of safety and security, takes up his habitation in the deserted sheil of some Whelk or Murex, and by this means furnishes a curious instance of natural instinct; from this time, one of his prehensile claws becomes gradually much larger than the other; that which is enclosed in the cover- ing, shrinks up, and becomes useless, thus adapting itself admirably to it’s newly-acquired situation. ‘The Argonau- | ta by the use of it’s oars and sail, has particularly at- tracted the regard, even of the most ancient writers, and is supposed to have furnished the first idea of a ship. Different in it’s internal structure is the form of the Nautilus, which has a regular assortment of chambered compartments, connected with each other, and which are entirely occupied by the animal. In short, the facts and observations which Conchology brings to our view, open to the mind, new scenes of continual admiration of that great Being, who has so wonderfully adapted their singular forms and instincts to the situations in which they are placed.

LENE

BOTANY

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G. Perry del.

PALM TREE Publishd by J. Strattera. Holborn, Jan’ iE Tae

BOTAN Y.

THE CEROXYLON, OR PALM TREE,

_ Polygamia. Moneecia.

Tue Ceroxylon, or Palm Tree of Peru, which has been submitted to the class of French Institute, by Mon- sieur Humbolt, is remarkable for it’s novelty, as well as it’s situation; for the lofty height to which it elevates it’s summit; and the singular production of wax it yields ;

from which circumstance it has been sometimes called the Wax Palm.

Mutis, who has held a distinguished rank amongst modern naturalists, is the only one who had formed an idea of it’s existence, which circumstance is mentioned in the supplement to the third Edition of Linnzus’s Systema Nature.

According to the Botanical Distinctions of Linneus,_ it must be classed with the Polygamia ; of the Order. Monecia.

On the lofty and cloud-cap’t summits of the Andes which separate the Valley of Madeleine from the River

Z.§

BOTANY.

Cauca, this tree chiefly abounds, amidst the most rug- ged precipices and barren passes of the country.

This Palm Tree is also a Native of Quindiu, one of the mountainous and snowy regions of Peru, and is called the Ceroxylon to distinguish it from the Palm Trees already known: it is said sometimes to reach the amazing height of 160 to 180 feet. The trunk is straight. and swelling out in the middle, bearing at the top its immense branches in various directions. The fruit is small and round, containing an oval kernel; the flowers are of two sorts, growing out of a sheath ; the hermaphrodite and the female ; and are not remarkable for their beauty or their size. .

The most extraordinary circumstance relating to this Tree, is the secretion of Wax, containing a small propor- tion of Rosin, through the whole outside surface of its bark, on each side of the circles where there have been the marks' © of the former leayes.

Pliny makes mention of a Larix Tree which was used in the Amphitheatre of Nero, and was 120 feet in heighth ; but the Tree at present under consideration, may be indeed regarded as the Monarch of all the Forests of the World, if its gigantic size can entitle it to that distinction,

No advantageous use has hitherto been made either of the Wax, which invests the bark of this Tree, or of the Fruit, both of which might it is supposed be converted to ithe uses of mankind; the former for giving light; the latter as a pleasant and wholesome food, and containing much sugar. The Timber is of a firm texture, and capable of being formed into beams and rafters for houses; but the » difficulty of removal from its original mountainous situation will perhaps be for ever an inseparable bar to its general use

and consumption.

BOTANY.

The Palm Trees form a most astonishing family in the History of the Vegetable Kingdom; their amazing height ; their majestic forms; the delightful and extensive shadows which they yield to the weary traveller, induced Linnaeus to give them the name of Princes of India; and if we add to these external qualities, the Flour, the Wine, and the Oil, which they so plentifully produce, we may regard them as one amongst those Blessings for which Man has reason to be highly ibis to his Creator.

It is also supposed that this Plant might. exist, is «a comparison of the climate and temperature, if trans- planted to the mountainous regions of Switzerland ; hitherto however there is nothing more than conjecture to strengthen

this opinion.

The Flower grows at the upper part of the Tree, shooting from a sheath or spatha, in clusters or bunches, upon which the berries are afterwards formed ;: the root consists of various arms and shoots spreading out at the foot, and giving security to the trunk.

The circular stripes which appear in the external bark of the trunk, indicate the gradual expansion of the Tree, each circle being formed every year, so that: the relative age of the tree may be easily ascertained.

In the East Indies, the uses of the Palm Trees are extremely multifarious, for independently of the Canauca, Palm, which yields an excellent wax from it’s leaves, by boiling ; there is also another species, which supplies the natives with the following articles; bread, oil, milk, wine, ropes, masts, oars, cordage, clothing, wax, rosin, needles and thread.

BOTANY.

The Indians have a.method of climbing these trees for the fruit, by placing two large hoops loosely round the trunk, into the lowest of which they place their legs, as far as the knee, and then raise themselves by the upper one, placing it at the utmost extent of their arms; at other times by shooting an arrow to which is fixed a rope, over the highest branches of the tree.

We do not find that the Seeds of this Tree have as yet been brought to Europe.

There has been a considerable difference in the opinion of Naturalists, as to the distinctive characters of the Palm Tree; some Botanists having proposed that these should be referred to the Genus Hexandria, and the Genus Poly- gamia wholly abolished. The Fig certainly differs so much from the Palms (by having its blossoms placed within the receptaculum), that it seems rather absurd to place them together ; nevertheless as all artificial systems must be subject to some objections and contradictions, it seems better to leave the matter as it is laid down by the great Linnzus, than to abridge the number of the Genera, already spe- cified, as Dr. Tuornrton in. his late Work has attempted, perhaps without sufficient reason. If any alteration were considered as adviseable in the Botanical system of the illustrious Swede, it would be better perhaps to enlarge than diminish the number of the Genera, as new discoveries of events are constantly made which do not readily reconcile themselves to the present established Genera.

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ENTOMOL OGY.

Fulgo ra

Published by J. Strattord Holborn Jan 1” 1810.

ENTOMOLOGY.

HEMIPTERA. Genus, Fulgora, or Lantern Fly.

Character.—The Forehead truncated and rounded ; antenuz. underneath the eyes, and doubly articulated ; rostrum carved inwardly underneath,

No. I. THE FULGORA PYRORHYNCUS, OR BENGAL FIRE-FLY.

An Insect hitherto almost unknown and remarkable for the beautiful purple and green colour of its under wings. This singular animal which bears some general resemblance to the Genus Papilio, or Butterfly, has the extraordinary power of eliciting a Phosporic Light from the internal cavity of its trunk, which forms a striking character in its appearance—The wonderful power which the Glow- Worm possesses of illuminating by its small radiant lamp, the darkness of night, has been the theme of Poets, as well as Naturalists. The present Insect, which is a Native of Indostan, is endowed with a similar power, and con- tributes in no small degree to excite our wonder by the curious formation of its trunk or lantern, which is intended by Nature to light it on its way. One of the largest of this family, the Lanternaria, has been ably figured and | described by Madame Mertan, in her account of the Indian Insects. Haying received from the Indians several of these, which she had carefully placed together in a transparent box, she was surprised in the night by their luminous appearance, and taking alarm at the display of the fire, as it indeed appeared to be, let fall the box to the ground, upon which the cause became obvious by the liberation of the Insects,

ENTOMOLOGY.

The upper wings of the present species are of a reddish brown, richly spotted; the trunk of a dark colour and rounded at the end; the under wings of a rich purple and green, alternately lanceolated in a pointed engrailment.

From a specimen in the Collection of Mr. Surry, and is supposed to be very scarce ; only two being at present known in England.

No. II. THE FULGORA CANDELARIA,

A Native of China, the trunk of a yellow colour turned upwards at the end and rounded ; the upper wings green, streaked with beautiful veins of yellow; the under wings of yellow, edged with black. There is an agree- able contrast in the shades and tints of this beautiful Insect ; but it is impossible to conceive what the effect of its light must be, except in its native Country, as it loses it phosporic effect when dried. ‘Travellers who have visited China may be supposed to have exaggerated its effects, when they inform us, that the Indians perform their journies by night, carrying one of them fastened to the foot, and one in each hand, by this means making all other light unnecessary.

This Insect undoubtedly has light suflicient for its own purposes, the acquirement of its proper food, or the pursuit of its favourite mate; but of its uses to man we can form no such opinion, as Monsieur Lesser has figured forth in his Theologia des Insectes, who would persuade us, that the Natives use no other light in their houses, than this small phosporic animal.

The present Specimen is figured from the Original in the Museum of Mr. Srucwpury, and exhibits the pristine colours in their full beauty and splendour.

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Crotalus horridus ; ox banded Rattlesnake. Linneus.

Ay

Vipera, caudisona, Americana.: Catesby.

Tie Repiite, which is so well. known by the dread- fully destructive power of it’s poisonous Bite, is a native of the Western Hemisphere, and is found in most of the Islands, as well as on the Continent of America. It seems however to exist chiefly in the hottest parts only, and to be incapable of resisting the frigid state of all the colder regions. Three or four different Species are already known and egg of which the present Snake is the most important, as it frequently reaches the size of ten feet in 5: length ; and the stripes in the other kinds are much paler, and not transyerse, but placed in a lozenge form along the back,

pd , The distinction of the Serpents into the poisonous and harmless tribes, can only be known by an accurate examination of their teeth; the fangs or poisoning teeth being alwa; rs of a tubular or channell’d structure, and calculated. for the conyeyance or injection of the poison- ous fluid, from a peculiar reseryoir, communicating. on each mle of the mouth. D

*

AMPHIBIA.

The colour of the head of the Rattlesnake, is brown ; the eye red; the upper part of the body of a brownish yellow, transversely marked with irregular broad black lists; the Rattle consisting of several horny membraneous cells, is brown and cf an undulated form; the articulation of these parts being very loose, makes them rattle against each other when the reptile moves his tail, which he always does when irritated. Yet unless provoked or in pursuit of it’s prey, the Rattlesnake must be considered as a sluggish and inactive animal, and is never the aggressor unless disturbed or assaulted. They make a deep wound and inject a very considerable portion of venom, but the poison if applied to the surface of the skin is said to be quite harmless, unless the skin be broken; and it seems to have no effect internally upon the stomach, as the Indians are in the constant habit of sucking the poison from the wounds of themselves or others; for this cir- cumstance, we have the authority of Catesby and other writers on natural history; and it seems not improbable that the human saliva or spittle may be a true and natu- ral antidote for the poison of almost all venomous Snakes, but which opinion however must lay open to farther experiments and observations. It is a remarkable cir- cumstance also that the bite of venomous snakes should be fatal to themselves, which has been proved by experi- ments when they have been provoked in a state of confine- ment. The usual time of death ensuing after a person has been bitten by a Rattlesnake is ‘from two to fifteen minutes ; this however is supposed to depend upon the state of irritation of the animal at the time, and upon the constitution of the patient; there is reason to believe that in a state of captivity, it’s operation would be weaker, as the Reptile is then generally considered as being out of health. The unfortunate man who was bitten to death lately in London, survived for 18 days, but in the greatest agony and pain, the inflammation being carried ‘on to

AM PHIBIA.

the greatest degree. The remedies applied were Salvolatile, Opium, and Brandy mixed with Water, but without the smallest good etfect ‘being obtained.

The Americans use a vegetable that abounds in their ~ woods, and’ which is said to be a compleat and effica- cious remedy, by the use of a decoction and cataplasm made from the root.

Of the Fascination or charming Power of the Rattle- snake, as it is commonly called, by which it can draw down from the highest trees small birds and animals, éausing them to drop into it’s very mouth, much has been asserted by travellers on each side of the question, the most probable explanation of this circumstance may perhaps arise from the terror and confusion into which the smaller animals are thrown by the sight and soand of the Rattlesnake preventing them from making” their escape.

The Rattlesnake is a viviparous animal, producing it’s young in the month of June, generally about twelve in number, and which by September acquire the length of twelve inches. It is said to practise the same extra ordinary mode of preserving it’s young from danger which is attributed to the Viper of Europe, viz. of receiving them into it’s mouth, and swallowing them; they are afterwards seen to disgorge them when the danger is over. In Winter they retire to the most secret and. inaccessable cliffs, where they pass the season in a torpid and dormant state, till the Spring once more brings them forth from their dark habitations,

Amongst the most remarkable circumstances in the conformation of the Rattlesnake, may be considered the mechanical Construction of his Tail. The form of it is

AMPHIBIA.

so singular, that no description or even delineation of it will be found fadequate to explain its structure compleatly, without perhaps an examination. At the end of the body of the Snake, there is fixed a membrancous appendage which may be called not improperly, the Radix or Root of the Rattle, it is flattish in shape as if compressed ; and upon this are placed ten or twelve horny rings or circles, which are connected loosely, and on the motion of the animal rattle against each other, the sound much resembling that of a persen playing a game with dice. The circular rings have a strong hold upon each by means of a tightened collar, so that they may recede or be com- pressed upon each other, by any. motion of the tail; and to this impulse the noise is always owing.

As the Rattlesnake changes his skin every year, it is supposed there is a fresh growth in the joints of the tail, and which varies according to the age of the animal. We shall finish our account of this extraordinary Rep- tile, by a concluding reflection, upon the. wisdom and goodness of the great Creator, who has not left mankind, and other creatures, subjected to the danger of .its deadly bite, without a means of alarm so well calculated to enable them to avoid and escape the evil. This vengeful animal is also very much confined in it’s province and range, there being no authority to justify us in supposing, that they are ever found in the Eastern parts of the globe ; they remain confined to the hotter regions of the Western Hemisphere.

From a fine living Specimen in Mr. Kendrick’s. Mena- garie, Piccadilly, London.

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SEPTA TRITONIA

as L. Bushy Setedp.

Published by J. Stratford, Holborn. Feb. I8Io

CONCHOLOGY.

Genus, SEPTA TRITONIA, or TRITON’s HORN.

Character.—Shell ‘univalye, spiral, acuminated, divided longitudinally by membranaceous sutures, placed irregularly and opposite, upon the folds of the spire, one of these forming the cheek of the Mouth or Maxilla Oris, the Columella or central Pillar corrugated or wrinkled. The Maxilla Oris is invested with double teeth painted, and of a brown colour.

THIS Shell, classed with the Genus Septa, and which has hitherto been described erroneously as a Murex, is a native of various parts of the Globe, being found in the Eastern Ocean, andalso in the European Seas. It is dis- tinguished by the Richness of its Colours. It has some- times been denominated the Triton’s Horn, from the re- semblance which it bears to some of the sculptured Relievos of the Ancients, in which the Tritons, who wait upon Neptune, are represented holding up Shells of this sort, and blowing with them from their mouths a Music, suita- ble enough to those watry beings.

This remarkable Shell varies considerably in size, being sometimes eighteen inches in length, and by making a small opening at the upper end, a pleasing and agreeable sound may be produced, resembling that of a trumpet, but rather more deep and sonorous in its tone.

Another Shell, which has considerable resemblance in its general form to the one now described, has lately been discovered in New Holland, but it differs in the minuter

CONCHOLOGY.

peculiarities of form and colour, being much smaller, and

of a redder colour.

For want of proper and sufficient distinctions, several preceding Writers upon Conchology, have placed this Shell with the Murex Genus, but the Murex, strictly speak- ing, has no Divisions or Sept on its Spire, in which may be instanced the Murex Morioand Murex Trapezium, &c. of Linneus, which therefore must be always considered as belonging to a distinct Family.

From a charming Specimen in the Collection of Mr, Gwenap, of London.

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ORNITHOLOGY.

THE CONDOR VULTURE.

Character. —Bill hooked, armed with a bulbous Base. Head and Neck partially bare, with a naked Skin. ' Neck curved and bent back. Feet armed with crooked Claws,

Tue Vulture which has excited the miraculous and fabulous narratives of those who have travelled through the Regions of Southern America, has lately been introduced into Europe in the live state, and is found by no means to equal the astonishing Size which has been recorded of him. The largest which has been known, did not exceed twelve feet upon the extended wings. Nevertheless it so far ex» ceeds the Eagle in grandeur and strength, that if size

ORNITHOLOGY.

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alone were to constitute superiority, it might be truly de- nominated the King of Birds.

The Vultures in general differ from the Eagles in being of a heavier or less active character ; in ferocity how- ever and the untamable disposition of their nature, they are by no means inferior.

The Condor Vulture, the largest known at present is found only in South America, and has made its name terrible to the Natives by the attacks which it sometimes makes upon living animals, and in some cases even upon the human species. Some writers have confidently affirmed that it has been known to carry away Children where an opportunity has offered; and two of these birds have been seen to attack a full-grown heifer, and ultimately cesany it, by tearing it in pieces.

This curious Bird has a singular pouch placed under the lower mandible, of a blue colour, and reaching down the neck; it has also several fleshy appendages on each side of the throat, diminishing in size as they descend. Below the principal crest, which is large and upright, is a smaller one distinct and beset with coarse down. The crest is of a dark grey, and on the front of the neck is a pendent pearl- shaped tubercle; there is also a beautiful tippet of white fur forming an elegant collar round the neck, with the feathers turned back, and the claws are strongly hooked,

Since this bird was first exhibited in England, Mon- sieur Humboldt has published his Account of the Condor Americanus, and he mentions having frequently met with them on the Andes and Cordilleras Mountains in Peru. The young birds are entirely destitute of feathers, being eoyered with a fine whitish down, but which is full as thick

ORNITHOLOGY.

as to giye the young birds all the appearance of the old. ones.

The Indians are in the habit of taking them by means of nooses prepared for them, and by meaus of baits of dead, carcases sett for that purpose; for when the Condor has gorged itself with food, it becomes indolent and unwilling to fly, and is taken alive without much difficulty.

A curious stuffed specimen of the Condor Vulture, was lately preserved in the Leverian Museum, and after-. wards said to be sold to the Emperor of Austria; we have. no means therefore of comparing the measurement with the living Specimen, although from recollection, the size seems. to have been much the same,

Th its captive state it seems to have lost a great deal of its original fierceness, and to subinit itself with a consider- able gentleness of disposition to the different objects which surround it.

Birds of prey are said to have a greater longevity than others, and in this respect the life of the Condor Vulture is reported to coincide. The Golden Eagle has been said to have lived upwards of one hundred years, and Hawks and Falcons for a much longer term. ‘Their affection for their young is very eminent, and at the times of hatching they are fearless of man and every external danger. Their nests are formed of sticks and dry grass, and are built upon the tops of the most inaccessible cliffs, amidst barren moun- tains, far from the peaceful and hospitable abodes of man, and where they can undisturbedly indulge in all the gloomy solitude of their nature.

The Condor Vulture, which is at present in Mr. Kenpricx’s Menagerie, Piccadilly, London, may be re-

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ORNITHOLOGY.

garded as a valuable acquisition to those amateurs who take delight in the curious parts of Natural History: it is stately and dignified in its appearance, and has preserved its natural appetite through all the horrors of transportation and imprisonment. He daily devours a large quantity of raw beef, and in appearance seems to preserve a vigorous and healthy constitution. In the annexed plate, he is de- scribed in the act of carrying away a native Peruvian Child; and as we have the authority of many grave and respectable writers to authenticate such a circumstance, we hope that we shall not incur the censure of the more incredulous and sceptical part of our Readers. It is no uncommon circum- stance even in England for the Eagles to carry off Lambs of a considerable size; nor does it seem either extraordinary or improbable that a bird whose wings extend twelve feet from tip to tip, and whose conformation evidently marks him as a voracious creature, should if ever an opportunity occurs, readily and easily exercise its fatal powers upon the unprotected and helpless state of Infancy. The solitary nature of this bird however, and the particular regions to which he is confined, are providentially placed as a barrier and limitation to his otherwise boundless and voracious appetite. |

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ICHTHYOLOGY.

Genus, SPARUS.

Character—Teeth strong, front teeth sometimes ina single, sometimes in numerous rows;. grinders, convex, smooth, and arranged like a pavement; lips ie) gill- covers unarmed; smooth scaly.

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